||Modern history, also referred to modern period or the modern era, is the historical timeline after the Middle Ages. Modern history can be further broken down into the early modern period and the late modern period after the French revolution and the Industrial revolution. Contemporary history is the span of historic events that are immediately relevant to the present time. Europe was not the richest part of the world. Although Europeans had mastered some technologies and borrowed others- including clocks, gunpowder weapons, and oceanic sailing vessels- they were dazzled by the wealth, commerce, and productive skills that they encountered when visiting other centers of civilization, whether in the Middle East, southern and eastern Asia, or even in the new world. After Europeans had achieved dominance over the Americas, their imperial appetites turned to the countries of Asia. In the 9th century the European history has been taught at the undergraduate level in India for more than a century, but the rate at which new research has been going on in European universities makes it very necessary that book. This book deals with the social and economic history of Europe from the decline of Feudalism in the late middle ages to the beginning of Industrial Capitalism.